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Stomach and digestive disorders

Ulcer is a chronic recurring condition which is characterised by the periodic occurrence of ulcers in the mucosal membranes in the stomach of the duodenum. This disease is caused by the Helicobacter infection, certain medicines (for example, aspirin, non-steroid medicines against inflammation), and stress. The main symptoms of an ulcer are: pelvic pain at night, on an empty stomach (in the case of duodenal ulcer), or after eating (in the case of stomach ulcer). It should be noted that functional dyspepsia syndrome which is very frequent can have the same symptoms. Only endoscopic examination can answer this question accurately.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a condition in which stomach acid reflux (i.e. by entering the oesophagus) damages the mucosal membrane of the oesophagus, and (or) other organs (throat, bronchial tubes), and (or) these symptoms affect your daily life. GERD continues to spread around the world, especially in developed countries. Symptoms include burning pain in the middle of the chest, regurgitation of acid stomach contents, discomfort, and pain in the upper part of the stomach. People can find relief by eating regularly, avoiding overeating before going to bed, quitting smoking, and losing weight (if they are overweight). Only a healthcare specialist can prescribe suitable medicines and examinations.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a functional disorder of the digestive tract characterised by pelvic pain or discomfort (bloating, etc.). This is a common disease developing in 8 to 23% of adults. What causes IBS isn’t quite known, but previously experienced digestive disorders, infections, psychological and social factors, stress, constant psychological discomfort, surgical interventions, usage of antibiotics, and poor nutrition may trigger IBS and its development. This is not a serious disease. It is often enough to advice patients on how to manage it. Sometimes people need long-term treatment of both the digestive tract and nervous system.

Constipation is a condition characterised by difficulties with defecation, rare defecation, or feeling that the evacuation was not complete. Constipation can be a symptom of another disorder in the nervous, endocrine, or digestive systems. If it is impossible to establish the cause, it is classified as functional constipation. People can help themselves by exercising, drinking more liquids, and eating more fibre rich foods.

Hepatitis is a condition characterised by acute or chronic inflammation of the liver caused by viruses which can be transmitted through hand contact (Hepatitis type A, E), blood contact (Hepatitis type B, C, D), alcohol, and other hepatotoxic substances or medicines. Sometimes inflammation of the liver can occur in a very acute form (jaundice, pain in one’s side, fever, nausea, vomiting, dark coloured urine). But often people with chronic hepatitis don’t feel anything until complication – liver cirrhosis – occur indicating its advanced stage: bleeding from expanded veins in oesophagus, ascites (accumulation of liquids in abdominal cavity), and fainting. Hepatitis and cirrhosis are diagnosed with the help of blood tests, ultrasound screening of internal organs, endoscopy of oesophagus and stomach, and liver biopsy. Only a healthcare specialist – gastroenterologist can prescribe the necessary examinations and treatment.


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